Senior Research Analyst
Principal Research Analyst
Description, Reporting, and Case Numbers
Mpox, formerly known as monkeypox, is a viral disease, specifically an orthopoxvirus (1), and is in the smallpox virus family.
The symptoms of mpox are primarily flu-like (such as fever, headache, muscle aches and backaches, chills, and exhaustion).
In addition, a rash may occur before or after the flu-like symptoms. The rash may be painful, itch, or look like pimples or blisters. An infected person is contagious until the rash fully heals, no scabs remain, and there is a new layer of skin (2).
Mpox symptoms in people are required to be reported (3) to the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KHDE) by mandated reporters, including both symptoms that are present before laboratory testing and the laboratory testing results. As of December 21, 2022, there were 44 cases of mpox in Kansas (4).
Treatment and Vaccine
KDHE reports there are no treatments specifically available for mpox, but a treatment protocol is available based on antiviral drugs and vaccines originally developed to prevent smallpox (5).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved an emergency use vaccine, JYNNEOS, on August 9, 2022 (6). Vaccine purchase and distribution is a federal function overseen by the Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The total allocated vials nationwide of the JYNNEOS vaccine as of December 16, 2022 (7), was 1,091,650, of which 857,493 had been requested by states.
Kansas is allocated 2,156 vials and has requested and received 2,156 vials.
Current availability of the vaccine in Kansas may be found on the KDHE website.
Federal Public Health Emergency
A nationwide public health emergency was declared by the U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services on August 4, 2022 (8), for an outbreak of mpox cases. On December 6, 2022, HHS announced that a renewal of the emergency is not anticipated. If it is not extended, the mpox public health emergency will end January 31, 2023 (9). If a public health emergency is declared in Kansas, the state response would follow the Kansas Emergency Management Act, codified at KSA 48-920 et seq. (10) .
Mpox is a zoonotic virus, meaning it can spread between people and animals. On August 19, 2022, the American Veterinary Medical Association reported that in June 2022, researchers in France, confirmed the first known transmission of mpox to have occurred between humans and a dog (11).
If there is transmission to the animal population, owners of domestic animals have a duty to report diseases to the Animal Health Commissioner per KSA 47-622. The Animal Health Commissioner determines the response needed to protect the health of domestic animals as set forth in KSA 47-610 et seq.
- Kansas Department of Agriculture (KDA). Spring 2022. Monkeypox Outbreak in the U.S. Kansas Animal Health News. p.6. https://agriculture.ks.gov/docs/default-source/dah-newsletters/kdah-summer-2022-newsletter.pdf?sfvrsn=39b09ac1_0
- Kansas Department of Health and Environment. Monkeypox (Mpox) Symptoms. https://www.kdhe.ks.gov/1923/Monkeypox-Mpox
- Kansas Department of Health and Environment. How to Report Monkeypox/Orthopoxvirus Cases and Testing in Kansas. https://www.kdhe.ks.gov/1948/How-to-Report-MonkeypoxOrthopoxvirus-Cas
- Supra note 2
- Supra note 2
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Emergency Use Authorization. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/mcm-legal-regulatory-and-policy-framework/emergency-use-authorization#monkeypox
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response. JYNNEOS Vaccine Distribution by Jurisdiction. https://aspr.hhs.gov/SNS/Pages/JYNNEOS-Distribution.aspx
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Strategic Preparedness and Response. Determination that a Public Health Emergency Exists. https://aspr.hhs.gov/legal/PHE/Pages/monkeypox-4Aug22.aspx
- Healthcaredive. HHS to lift mpox emergency declaration as cases drop. https://www.healthcaredive.com/news/monkeypox-mpox-public-health-emergency/638047/
- KDA. Monkeypox Outbreak in the U.S.
- American Veterinary Medical Association. August 19, 2022. Human-to-dog Monkeypox Transmission Case Reported. https://www.avma.org/news/human-dog-monkeypox-transmission-case-reported